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Ryan Myers
Ryan Myers

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To complete a description of the dietary intakes of New Zealand schoolchildren by describing afternoon and evening foods and nutrients. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data from the 2002 Children's Nutrition Survey were analysed to describe food and nutrient intakes during the afternoon (14.00 to 16.59 hours) and evening (17.00 to 23.59 hours). New Zealand homes and schools. Children (n 2875) aged 5-14 years. Most children consumed something during the afternoon (79 %) and evening (98 %). Children were less likely to consume something during non-school day afternoons; if 11-14 years of age; and when of Pacific ethnicity. Afternoon food consumers had higher daily intakes for most nutrients. Afternoon intake accounted for much of this difference. In the afternoon, children consumed fruit (26 %) and biscuits/crackers (21 %). Evening eating contributed to daily intakes of energy (40 %), fat (43 %), carbohydrate (35 %), sucrose (20 %), glucose (24 %), vitamin A (47 %), Ca (26 %) and Fe (40 %). Children aged 5-6 years consumed a lower proportion of their daily energy intake during the evening than older children. In the evening, just one-third of children consumed vegetables (45 % if including potato/kumara/taro), 19 % fruit and 17 % ate hot chips. Children were more likely to consume vegetables if they also consumed potato/kumara/taro. Twenty-three per cent of children had powdered drinks/cordials, 21 % had soft drinks and 19 % had milk. Consuming foods/drinks in the afternoon positively influenced macronutrient distribution, increasing the carbohydrate proportion. During the evening 40 % of energy intake was consumed but less than one-half of children consumed vegetables; thus inclusion of vegetables in the evening is important, particularly in meals without potato/kumara/taro.




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Only two mutations have been described in the literature, so far, regarding starch and root quality traits in cassava. This article reports on an induced mutation in this crop, first identified in 2006. Botanical seed from five different cassava families were irradiated with gamma rays. Seed was germinated, transplanted to the field (M1 plants), and self-pollinated to produce the M2 generation. Abnormal types regarding starch granule morphology were identified during the single plant evaluation of M2 genotypes. To confirm these characteristics, selected genotypes were cloned and a second evaluation, based on cloned plants obtained from vegetative multiplication, was completed in September 2007. Two M2 genotypes presented small starch granules, but only one could be fully characterized, presenting a granule size of 5.80 +/- 0.33 microm compared with three commercial clones with granule sizes ranging from 13.97 +/- 0.12 to 18.73 +/- 0.10 microm and higher-than-normal amylose content (up to 30.1% in cloned plants harvested in 2007, as compared with the typical values for "normal" cassava starch of around 19.8%). The gels produced by the starch of these plants did not show any viscosity when analyzed with the rapid viscoanalyzers (5% suspension), and the gels had low clarity. Low viscosity could be observed at higher concentrations (8 or 10% suspensions). Preliminary results suggest that the mutation may be due to a lesion in a gene encoding one of the isoforms of isoamylase (probably isa1 or isa2).


This study was carried out to assess the extent of heavy metals and metalloid accumulation from agricultural soils to foodstuffs (viz, M. esculenta (cassava) and Musa paradisiaca (plantain)) around thirteen neighboring communities within Tarkwa, Ghana; and to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of these foodstuffs. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and mercury analysis was done using a mercury analyzer. From the results, 30% of cassava samples collected, contained higher concentrations of Pb when compared to Codex Alimentarius Commission standard values. Bioconcentration factor indicated that Ni had higher capacity of absorption into food crops from soil than the other heavy metals. For both children and adults, the target hazard quotient (THQ) of Pb in cassava in communities such as Techiman, Wangarakrom, Samahu, and Tebe (only children) were greater than 1, which is defined as an acceptable risk value. This indicated that residents could be exposed to significant health risks associated with cassava consumption.


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